The scales measuring personality traits, reflection and cognitive complexity are based on self-perceptions since people's memories in general are prone to distortions and biases, and since social desirable and consistent respondent behavior cannot be excluded, over- and under estimations could be present (podsakoff et al 2003 . A study conducted in the 1950s connected two personality types to heart disease risks cardiologists meyer friedman and r h rosenman conducted a study and came up with a theory that best illustrates two opposing personality types - the typically highly-strung type a and the laidback type b. Optimism is a mental attitude reflecting a belief or hope that the outcome of some specific endeavor, or outcomes in general, will be positive, favorable, and desirable a common idiom used to illustrate optimism versus pessimism is a glass filled with water to the halfway point: an optimist is said to see the glass as half full, while a pessimist sees the glass as half empty. In the personality trait theories characteristics are analyzed over time and across situations where the theorists form consistent and distinctive patterns that they believe provide a sound basis. The trait approach arose from the great man theory as a way of identifying the key characteristics of successful leaders it was believed that through this approach critical leadership traits could be.
Trait theories are concerned with the construction of personality tests (or inventories) that enable them to pinpoint individual differences in terms of specific traitsmarketers who position their products or services as providing an opportunity to belong or to be appreciated by others in a group or social setting would seem to be guided by. Extraversion implies an energetic approach to the social and material world and includes traits such as sociability, activity, assertiveness, and positive emotionality agreeableness contrasts a prosocial and communal orientation toward others with antagonism and includes traits such as altruism, tender-mindedness, trust, and modesty. Carl jung was born in july 26, 1875 the psychologist has been vital in the world of psychology throughout his career, until his death in june 6, 1961 carl jung established a theory, which saw universal types in human personality. Carl rogers (1902-1987) was a humanistic psychologist who agreed with the main assumptions of abraham maslow, but added that for a person to grow, they need an environment that provides them with genuineness (openness and self-disclosure), acceptance (being seen with unconditional positive regard), and empathy (being listened to and understood.
Leadership is an action not a position with the proper personality, a leader can accomplish many things like knowledge of the organization being able to handle all type of situations shows great leadership traits. Eysenck's theory of personality consists of describing three main personality traits that every individual is believed to have extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism (hagemann & naumann, 2009) an individual's differences in behaviour and personality are thought of by eysenck to be due to a person's brain functioning (hagemann & naumann. Personality types are distinguished from personality traits, which come in different levels or degrees according to type theories, for instance, there are two fundamentals types of people, introverts and extraverts. Trait theory trait theorists assume that personality traits are relatively enduring (stable) like psychoanalytic theorists, they expect to see carryover in personality over years.
Personality theories provide a way of organizing the many characteristics of humans and to discover patterns in the ways people behave the words we use describe the general ways of behaving theorists seek to find out if certain traits always appear together or why a person has some traits and not others. Personality and rogers in his theory, rogers stated that the organism has one basic goal: self-actualization he expressed his extremely optimistic approach when he explained that all of us have the tendency to grow until we reach actualization. There are certain personality traits that help teachers and students succeed success may mean different things for different people teachers and students who hold the majority of the following characteristics are almost always successful no matter how success is defined. Considerable advantages over trait models in our understanding of personality, and second, we want to outline the resources that social cognitive approaches have for purposes of understanding moral personality in particular.
Personality is a dynamic organisation, inside the person, of psy- chophysical systems that create the person's characteristic pat- terns of behaviour, thoughts and feelings. Comparative analysis on personality traits and - agreeable people are optimistic is a reflection of abilities to think things through, plan for the. Mccall and lombardo (1983), which expanded on the trait theory, argued that a leader is made or broken based on emotional stability, the ability to admit faults and errors, intellectual strength and having refined interpersonal skills and relations. The process of critical self-reflection for jews is a continuous process of which we are to be reminded as we pass through entranceways from within and without structures, before and after we. Further, not all introspection is the same psychologists differentiate between two types of introspection: self-reflection and self-ruminationself-reflection is a positive form of introspection, from which people attribute meaning and significance to their thoughts and actions, accept and learn from their mistakes, and increase their self-awareness.
The trait theories consider personality to be a collection of such traits they dissect the personality into some components called traits cattell is (the) its principle founder. Recent theories have attempted to understand how both traits and values fit into a broader model of personality, and hence have looked at how particular traits, eg those in the big five, are. Personality defined • underlying, relatively stable, psychological structures and processes that organize human experience and shape a person's actions and reactions.
Summary personality has been studied for over 2,000 years, beginning with hippocrates more recent theories of personality have been proposed, including freud's psychodynamic perspective, which holds that personality is formed through early childhood experiences. - 16 pf personality test resolving the conflict of reliability vs accuracy in the 16 pf test introduction: for psychologists, one of the more popular theories espoused is the trait approach to personality, or the idea that people have consistent personality characteristics that can be measured and studied (kalat, 2002, 512. Include a paragraph indicating whether or not you find personality trait theories more effective as an explanation for human behavior than psychoanalytic or humanistic theories remember that this is a personal reflection, but it still needs to demonstrate your understanding of the week's topics.